State of Connecticut Office of the State Comptroller MEMORANDUM NO. 97-41






July 11, 1997


ATTENTION:Chief Administrative and Fiscal Officers, Business Managers, and Payroll and Personnel Officers
SUBJECT: Appropriate Use of Personal Service Agreements (CO-802A)

A revised Personal Service Agreement (CO-802A) is available for distribution to all State agencies. The form contains a new paragraph specific to individuals contracting with agencies as an independent contractor. When ordering the new Personal Service form please reference stock number 6938-170-01. All approved variations to the CO-802A must be revised to reflect these changes.

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations distinguish between an independent contractor and employee. Agencies must pay particular attention to these guidelines prior to contracting with an individual. Specifically, the IRS has identified 20 factors to determine whether an individual is an independent contractor or employee. Please refer to the attachment for proper classification.

If a determination is made that the individual is an independent contractor, the revised CO-802A form should be used. If the individual does not meet the conditions of an independent contractor, then the agency must follow established personnel and payroll guidelines for establishing the individual as an employee.

Old CO-802A forms may be used when contracting with businesses. The revised form will be used for both individuals and businesses when all supplies of old forms are exhausted.

Agencies must continue to comply with all PSA guidelines and attachments as required by the Office of Policy and Management and Department of Administrative Services.


Processing of Personal Service Agreements should be directed to the Accounts Payable Division at (860) 702-3395.

Interpretation of Memorandum should be directed to the Performance Evaluation and Review Division at (860) 702-3443.



Common-law Rules. To help you determine whether an individual is an employee under the common-law rules, the IRS has identified 20 factors that are used as guidelines to determine whether sufficient control is present to establish an employer-employee relationship.

These factors should be considered guidelines. Not every factor is applicable in every situation, and the degree of importance of each factor varies depending on the type of work and individual circumstances. However, all relevant factors are considered in making a determination, and no one factor is decisive.

It does not matter that a written agreement may take a position with regard to any factors or state that certain factors do not apply, if the facts indicate otherwise.

The 20 factors indicating whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor are:

1) Instructions. An employee must comply with instructions about when, where, and how to work. Even if no instructions are given, the control factor is present if the employer has the right to control how the work results are achieved.

2) Training. An employee may be trained to perform services in a particular manner. Independent contractors ordinarily use their own methods and receive no training from the purchasers of their services.

3) Integration. An employee's services are usually integrated into the business operations because the services are important to the success or continuation of the business. This shows that the employee is subject to direction and control.

4)Services rendered personally. An employee renders services personally. This shows that the employer is interested in the methods as well as the results.

5) Hiring assistants. An employee works for an employer who hires, supervises, and pays workers. An independent contractor can hire, supervise, and pay assistants under a contract that requires him or her to provide materials and labor and to be responsible only for the result.

6) Continuing relationship. An employee generally has a continuing relationship with an employer. A continuing relationship may exist even if work is performed at recurring although irregular intervals.

7)Set hours of work. An employee usually has set hours of work established by an employer. An independent contractor generally can set his or her own work hours.

8) Full-time required. An employee may be required to work or be available full-time. This indicates control by the employer. An independent contractor can work when and for whom he or she chooses.

9) Work done on premises. An employee usually works on the premises of an employer, or works on a route or at a location designated by an employer.

10) Order or sequence set. An employee may be required to perform services in the order or sequence set by an employer. This shows that the employee is subject to direction and control.

11)Reports. An employee may be required to submit reports to an employer. This shows that the employer maintains a degree of control.

12) Payments. An employee is generally paid by the hour, week, or month. An independent contractor is usually paid by the job or on a straight commission.

13) Expenses. An employee's business and travel expenses are generally paid by an employer. This shows that the employee is subject to regulation and control.

14) Tools and materials. An employee is normally furnished significant tools, materials, and other equipment by an employer.

15) Investment. An independent contractor has a significant investment in the facilities he or she uses in performing services for someone else.

16)Profit or loss. An independent contractor can make a profit or suffer a loss.

17)Works for more than one person or firm. An independent contractor is generally free to provide his or her services to two or more unrelated persons or firms at the same time.

18) Offers services to general public. An independent contractor makes his or her services available to the general public.

19) Right to fire. An employee can be fired by an employer. An independent contractor cannot be fired so long as he or she produces a result that meets the specifications of the contract.

20) Right to quit. An employee can quit his or her job at any time without incurring liability. An independent contractor usually agrees to complete a specific job and is responsible for its satisfactory completion, or is legally obligated to make good for failure to complete it.

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